Engine injectors are the parts of the fuel system of the engine that directly spray fuel into the engine cylinder.
The injector is an integral part of the fuel injection system, which:
- feeds the fuel under appropriate pressure into the combustion chamber,
- ensures appropriate fuel spraying.
In indirect injection systems, the most popular injector design are pintle injectors.
In direct injection systems, the most popular injector design are multi-hole injectors.
The injectors are integrated with the following:
- in-line injection pump,
- distributor injection pump.
The injector is connected to the pump via a high-pressure line.
Due to the development of new forms of hydraulic fuel injection systems and increasingly stringent environmental requirements to be met by contemporary diesel engines, modern fuel injection methods have become dominant in contemporary diesel engine designs. In the latest systems, direct injection of fuel increasingly uses piezoelectric injectors instead of electromagnetic injectors.
In the case of systems with a swirl chamber or pre-combustion chamber, fuel is compressed by an in-line or rotary fuel pump to the pressure of approx. 200 bar and fed directly into the injector using metal lines. Design of a standard injector:
- slot filter
- fuel passage
- pressure pin
- adaptor plate
- nozzle cap
- nozzle body
- locating dowels
- adjustment shim
- overflow channel
- overflow port
- injector body 14.
- threaded connection
- sealing cone